Fernandez-Turiel JL, Saavedra J, Perez-Torrado FJ, et al. New ages, morphometric and geochemical data on recent shoshonitic volcanism of the Puna, Central Volcanic Zone of Andes: San Jerónimo and Negro de Chorrillos volcanoes. J South Am Earth Sci. 2021:103270. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2021.103270


Shoshonitic volcanic centres are scarce within the back-arc mafic volcanism of the Puna Plateau in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. San Jerónimo and Negro de Chorrillos volcanoes are two well preserved shoshonitic monogenetic edifices that developed mainly Strombolian activity and lava flows, which extended more than 9 and 4?km from the vent, producing a volume DRE (Dense Rock Equivalent) of 0.091 and 0.020?km3, respectively. The new unspiked K–Ar (groundmass) ages of San Jerónimo (144?±?3 ka) and Negro de Chorrillos (51?±?2 ka) eruptions presented in this work are both younger than those previously published. Petrographic and compositional features allow distinguishing between potassic and ultrapotassic suites in volcanic products of both eruptions. Phlogopite occurrence and low glass content characterize the ultrapotassic suite. Based on the crustal thickness of this part of the Puna and the experimental constraint, these magmas last equilibrated at Moho depths at around 50?km (the highest depth of spinel lherzolite stability field) for temperatures of 1100–1200?°C. Once in the crust, the K-rich magma underwent a minor interaction with a trachytic-trachydacitic melt, which is evidenced petrographically and geochemically, e.g., mismatch of mineral assemblages (co-occurrence of olivine and quartz), disequilibrium crystal textures (dusty zones in plagioclase, embayments in sanidine), and a wide range of compositional variation in the glasses. Ultrapotassic (i.e., phlogopite-bearing) and potassic lavas in the same eruption are interpreted as pulses of the same magma but with a longer mixing time with the trachytic-trachydacitic melt for the resulting ultrapotassic rocks within an eruptive time frame of hours or days. The singular shoshonitic character of these magmas could be related to their origin along an old terrane boundary. Afterwards, as occurs for other mafic magmas of the Puna, major NW-SE fault systems would favour their ascent to the surface.

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