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Representantes de la Universidad Gerardo Barrios de El Salvador visitan Geociencias Barcelona

El instituto Geociencias Barcelona (GEO3BCN-CSIC) abrió sus puertas el pasado mes de septiembre a representantes de la Universidad Gerardo Barrios de El Salvador (UGB). El objetivo principal de la visita fue establecer un primer contacto entre ambos ... Read more

03-10-2022 News

DT-GEO desarrollará una tecnología que simule terremotos, erupciones y tsunamis

Investigadores de Geociencias Barcelona (GEO3BCN - CSIC) coordinan A Digital Twin for GEOphysical Extremes (DT-GEO), un proyecto europeo que creará un prototipo de gemelo digital que simule eventos naturales extremos para estudiarlos y prever su impa... Read more

30-09-2022 News

Conocimiento geológico y vigilancia volcánica, clave para anticiparse a nuevas erupciones

Seis años antes de que el volcán Tajogaite hiciera erupción en La Palma, un trabajo de investigación de final de Máster sobre evaluación del peligro volcánico anticipó tanto el lugar más probable de inicio de la erupción como el escenario eruptivo má... Read more

28-09-2022 News

Vuelve la Semana de la Vulcanología a Olot

'Volcanes, Paisaje y sociedad' es el título de la segunda edición de la Semana de la Vulcanología en Olot programada por segundo año consecutivo por Espai Cràter. Una caminata con expertos por los volcanes de la Garrotxa, charlas sobre otros volcanes... Read more

23-09-2022 News

La investigación en el CSIC en el volcán de La Palma cumple un año

El 19 de septiembre de 2021 se inició una erupción volcánica en La Palma, en la Hoya de Tajogaite, en el paraje de Cumbre Vieja, que iba a impactar de lleno en las poblaciones cercanas y transformar la geografía de la isla canaria. Personal investiga... Read more

19-09-2022 News

El proyecto LOGINN, beneficiario del programa COMTE-Innovación 2022 de la Fundación General CSIC

El proyecto LOGINN ha sido uno de los ocho proyectos seleccionados por la Fundación General CSIC (FGCSIC) en la convocatoria 2022 del programa COMTE-Innovación, cuya finalidad es apoyar la valorización de proyectos tecnológicos y del conocimiento gen... Read more

09-09-2022 News

La presidenta del CSIC visita Geociencias Barcelona

Geociencias Barcelona (GEO3BCN-CSIC) ha recibido, este martes, 6 de septiembre a la presidenta del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Eloísa del Pino, en el marco de una ronda de visitas a varios centros de la institución en Cata... Read more

07-09-2022 News

GEO3BCN estudiará la relación entre riesgos geológicos y la evolución del paisaje en el Alto Pirineo y Arán

Geociencias Barcelona (GEO3BCN-CSIC) estudiará la geomorfología del Alto Pirineo y Arán examinando la relación entre la evolución del relieve y los riesgos geológicos asociados. El investigador postdoctoral, Marc Viaplana, trabaja en este proyecto ll... Read more

05-08-2022 News

Primera salida de campo del proyecto IMAGYN a El Valle de Arán

El equipo investigador del proyecto IMAGYN -‘High-resolution imaging of the crustal‐scale structure of the Central Pyrenees and role of Variscan inheritance on its geodynamic evolution’- viajó hasta el Valle de Arán en Lleida en su primera salida de ... Read more

22-07-2022 News

U-Pb dating and geochemical dataset of fracture-filling calcite veins from the Bóixols-Sant Corneli anticline (Southern Pyrenees)

Muñoz-López, D., Cruset, D., Vergés, J., Cantarero, I., Benedicto, A., Baqués, V., Mangenot, X., Albert, R., Gerdes, A., Beranoaguirre, A., & Travé, A. (2022). U-Pb dating and geochemical dataset of fracture-filling calcite veins from the Bóixols-Sant Corneli anticline (Southern Pyrenees). Data in Brief, 108636. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2022.108636

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Limited Mediterranean sea-level drop during the Messinian salinity crisis inferred from the buried Nile canyon

Gvirtzman, Z., Heida, H., Garcia-Castellanos, D., Bar, O., Zucker, E., & Enzel, Y. (2022). Limited Mediterranean sea-level drop during the Messinian salinity crisis inferred from the buried Nile canyon. Communications Earth & Environment, 3(1), 216. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00540-4

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First-Principles Calculations of Minerals and Related Materials

Ibáñez-Insa, J. (2022). First-Principles Calculations of Minerals and Related Materials. In Minerals (Vol. 12, Issue 9). https://doi.org/10.3390/min12091171

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The Abra del Toro rock shelter, northwestern Argentina, a space occupied by hunter-gatherers that was hit by the large 4.2 ka Cerro Blanco eruption

Pablo Carbonelli, J., Fernandez-Turiel, J.-L., & Belotti López de Medina, C. (2022). The Abra del Toro rock shelter, northwestern Argentina, a space occupied by hunter-gatherers that was hit by the large 4.2 ka Cerro Blanco eruption. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 45, 103629. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2022.103629

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How long-term hazard assessment may help to anticipate volcanic eruptions: The case of La Palma eruption 2021 (Canary Islands)

Martí, J., Becerril, L., & Rodríguez, A. (2022). How long-term hazard assessment may help to anticipate volcanic eruptions: The case of La Palma eruption 2021 (Canary Islands). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 431, 107669. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2022.107669

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Geomorphic response of outburst floods: Insight from numerical simulations and observations––The 2018 Baige outburst flood in the upper Yangtze River

Yang, Z., Liu, W., Garcia-Castellanos, D., Ruan, H., Luo, J., Zhou, Y., & Sang, Y. (2022). Geomorphic response of outburst floods: Insight from numerical simulations and observations––The 2018 Baige outburst flood in the upper Yangtze River. Science of The Total Environment, 851, 158378. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158378

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Historical reconstruction of sediment accumulation rates as an indicator of global change impacts in a tropical crater lake

Ruiz-Fernández, A. C., Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A., Blaauw, M., Pérez-Bernal, L. H., Cardoso-Mohedano, J. G., Aquino-López, M. A., Keaveney, E., & Giralt, S. (2022). Historical reconstruction of sediment accumulation rates as an indicator of global change impacts in a tropical crater lake. Journal of Paleolimnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10933-022-00254-9

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Incorporating a palaeo-perspective into Andean montane forest restoration

Loughlin NJD, Gosling WD, Duivenvoorden JF, Cuesta F, Mothes P and Montoya E (2022) Incorporating a palaeo-perspective into Andean montane forest restoration. Front. Conserv. Sci. 3:980728. doi: 10.3389/fcosc.2022.980728

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A central place foraging seabird flies at right angles to the wind to jointly optimize locomotor and olfactory search efficiency

Ventura, F., Catry, P., Dias, M. P., Breed, G. A., Folch, A., & Granadeiro, J. P. (2022). A central place foraging seabird flies at right angles to the wind to jointly optimize locomotor and olfactory search efficiency. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 289(1981), 20220895. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2022.0895

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A song of volumes, surfaces and fluxes: The case study of the Central Mallorca Depression (Balearic Promontory) during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

Raad, F., Ebner, R., Heida, H., Meijer, P., Lofi, J., Maillard, A., & Garcia-Castellanos, D. (2022). A song of volumes, surfaces and fluxes – The case study of the Central Mallorca Depression (Balearic Promontory) during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Basin Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12702

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1590 years ago, in 431 CE, the Maya civilisation was laid waste as the Ilopango volcano erupted, killing every living thing within 40 km around the volcano, according to a new study carried out by an international team of scientists and with the participation of Dario Pedrazzi, researcher at Geosciences Barcelona–CSIC (GEO3BCN). The article has been published in the journal PNAS.

It was known, as previous studies had shown, that there had been a major volcanic eruption in the region, but the date was still unknown. This new research lead by Victoria Smith, Associate Professor from University of Oxford and head Tephrochronology group, has established the precise date and nature of this eruption.

To do so, the team of scientists analysed an ice core recovered from Greenland and also carried out radiocarbon measurements from a charred tree found in the TBJ ash deposits. Hence, they were able to date accurately the massive eruption to within just a couple of years, in 431 CE.

The research team used a 3-D tephra dispersal model and they could estimate that the eruption plume rose to 45 km and that the Ilopango’s ash was sent more than 7.000 km, as far away as Greenland.

20190508 FotoNoti03

“This work follows previous studies that were published in 2019 and in which we described, thanks to an extensive analysis of the ash deposits in El Salvador, the main physical parameters of this violent eruption that reached its climax with a series of pyroclastic flows linked a caldera collapse”, said Dario Pedrazzi, researcher at GEO3BCN and co-author of the study. “A great part of this research has been possible thanks to all the data acquired during 3 field campaigns carried out in El Salvador during which we conducted a detailed mapping of the ash deposits present in an area of 200.000 km2”, said Pedrazzi.

Around 55 km3 of magma erupted from Illopango. “More than 2 million km2 of Central America was covered with at least ½ cm of ash and it would have been dark over this region for at least a week”, said Victoria Smith.

50 times bigger than Mount Saint Helens eruption

According to Smith, “Ilopango Eruption was more than 50 times bigger than that of Mount Saint Helens”, occurred in 1980. “The pyroclastic flows from the eruption of Ilopango were 10 times the volume of those from Vesuvius, which erupted in 79 CE, preserving the Roman city of Pompeii in ash.”, she added.

The explosion took place during the Maya Early Classic Period, which extended from 300 to 600 CE, as the civilisation saw growth across Central America. But, according to Victoria Smith, ‘The explosion would have killed every living thing within 40 km and there would have been no inhabitants for many years or decades in the vicinity.’ The enormous eruption did not, however, have a marked impact on the Maya elsewhere.

Ilopango was thought to have been responsible for the anomalously cold decade in the Northern Hemisphere around 540 CE. But, the work shows this date is at odds with archaeological evidence (pottery production), which actually suggests a date near the start of the Early Classic period.

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The Ilopango Caldera is located less than 10 km from San Salvador City, the capital of El Salvador, and it's a part of Volcanic Arc of El Salvador which includes a total of 21 active volcanoes, being one of the most active segments of the Central America Volcanic Arc.

This research has been possible with the support of a research project funded by CONACYT and lead by Gerardo Aguirre-Díaz, from Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). This project is focused in the study of the Ilopango caldera and its aimed to constrain the danger of volcanic supereruptions in Central America.

Researchers from Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and the University of Groningen also participated in the study. They worked alongside with researchers from Queen's University Belfast, Université Clermont Auvergne (CNRS), Università degli studi di Padova, Desert Research Institute, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, University of Bern and the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales from El Salvador.

Original article

Smith, V., et al (2020)., The magnitude and impact of the 431 CE Tierra Blanca Joven eruption of Ilopango, El Salvador. PNAS. doi: https://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.2003008117

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